UKPCS Science Chemistry: Sucrose #28

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Sucrose is a common saccharide found in many plants and plant parts. The molecule is a disaccharide combination of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose with the formula C12H22O11. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Sucrose #28”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Glucose #27

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Glucose #27”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Carbohydrates #26

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Carbohydrates

A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n.) Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Carbohydrates #26”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Cocaine #25

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or as a solution injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Cocaine #25”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Nicotine #24

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Nicotine:

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. Nicotine constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco.It also occurs in edible plants, especially Solanaceae such as eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes, but at trace levels generally under 200 nanograms per gram. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Nicotine #24”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Alkaloids#23

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Alkaloids

Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral[2] and even weakly acidic properties.[3] Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids.[4] In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Alkaloids#23”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Food preservation (Modern techniques) #23

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Modern industrial techniques

Pasteurization is a process for preservation of liquid food. It was originally applied to combat the souring of young local wines. Today, the process is mainly applied to dairy products. In this method, milk is heated at about 70 °C (158 °F) for 15–30 seconds to kill the bacteria present in it and cooling it quickly to 10 °C (50 °F) to prevent the remaining bacteria from growing. The milk is then stored in sterilized bottles or pouches in cold places. This method was invented by Louis Pasteur, a French chemist. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Food preservation (Modern techniques) #23”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Food preservation (Traditional techniques) #22

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Food preservation

Food preservation is to prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), or other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity. Food preservation may also include processes that inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut during food preparation. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavor is an important aspect of food preservation.

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UKPCS Science Chemistry: MEDICINE AND ITS CLASSIFICATION #21

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

MEDICINE AND ITS CLASSIFICATION

A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as medicine, medication, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

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UKPCS Science Chemistry:Rubber #31

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer. These are mainly polymers synthesized from petroleum byproducts. About 15 billion kilograms (5.3×1011 oz) of rubbers are produced annually, and of that amount two thirds are synthetic. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry:Rubber #31”