International Financial institutions #economy for #ukpcs 2016

This post tries to explain about such financial institutions as World Bank, IMF, WTO, ADB, AIIB, TRIPS and TRIMs and NDB etc. This is an important topic in UKPSC paper 5 and frequently overlooked. This is also important for UPSC preparation.

World Bank:

 It comprises of International Bank for Reconstruction and Development(IBRD) and International Development Association(IDA). When three other institutions i.e. International Finance Corporation(IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency(MIGA) and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes(ICSID) are taken with it, it is called World Bank Group. It makes leveraged loans to developing countries. Its stated goal is poverty reduction and it is the biggest such financial institution in the world. Its loans and grants come with conditions:- That the receiving country has to bring economic reforms and open that country for foreign capital. It was founded in Bretton Woods in 1944 along with IMF and another institution. Based in Washington DC, its President was traditionally American until current president Jim Yong Kim, who is South Korean.
Its First loan was given to France on condition that Communist members of it government were removed. After Marshall Plan, WB shifted focus to non-European countries. Currently it works on six strategic themes to preserve environment while promoting development. It finances infrastructure, education, water and transport etc. It promotes goals like eradication of poverty and hunger, universal primary education, gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combat diseases, ensure sustainable development and development of global partnerships. It has also set some Millennium Development Goals.


It is headed by the President and advised by Chief Economist. Its decisions are taken by voting in which US has 15.85% votes and Japan 6.84%. China has third largest 4.42% and India is at seventh place with 2.91% votes. India seeks larger voting % in line with its current economic status. 


1. Market reforms too quick can harm economies.
2. Run by a few powerful countries although has 188 members.
3. WB runs by Washington Consensus, which is neoliberal and emphasizes GDP.
4. Focused on outlay and not outcomes.
5.Expands bureaucratic power.
6. Why only American president.


International Monetary Fund is one of the Bretton Woods organisation headquartered at Washington DC. Its initial goa was reconstruction of international payment system but now it also works to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, high employment and sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty. It helps keep countries out of Balance of Payment problems which would otherwise result in worse economic problems. It also surveys economies of member countries for policy issues and provide inputs regarding it. The loans it provides are conditional and with collateral. India sought its assistance during its BoP cirisis in early 90s and had to submit gold a collateral as well as open its economy for receiving assistance. These conditions are as per the Washington Consensus. The currency of IMF is SDR.


All members have two governers in the Board. The Board of Governers has delegated most of its powers to an Executive Board of 24 members that takes decisions. Its membership is permanant for 8 countries( India not permanent) and other members chosen by a roster. The Chairman of Executive Board is called Managing Director who is always a European(currently Christine Lagarde). 
The voting power is based on a quota system. India has 2.79% quota of SDRs and 2.67% voting Power. US has 16.73% voting power followed by Japan at 6.23% and China at 6.16%.


1. Control of developed countries over less developed ones. 
2. No control over developed world and usurping sovereignty in LDCs.
3. Its conditions that include cutting expenditure have worse effects.
4. Bad effect on food security, education and environment.

Alternatives :- 

In 2014 BRICS CRA(Contingent Reserve Arrangement was started with $100 bn to provide liquidity through currency swaps in BoP crises. Also AIIB and African Monetary Fund have been established.


WTO or World Trade Organistion is an intergovernmental organisation for regulating world trade. It was created in 1995 under Marrakesh Agreement and replaced earlier GATT. It provides a framework for negotiating trade agreements and a mechanism for dispute resolution. Currently the Doha Round negotiations have been stuck since 2001 due to protectionism of farm subsidies by developed economies and free trade of industrial goods.( which hurts developing countries).


1. To oversee implementation, administration and operations of covered agreements.
2. To act as a platform for negotiation and dispute resolution.

WTO framework for trade:-

The main aspects of its trade framework are:-
1. Non discrimination
  •  MFN rule:- Grant a concession to one nation and it has to be granted to all
  • National treatment:- treat external goods as if produced in your country
  • Exceptions in favor of developing countries, regional FTAs, customs unions etc. permitted
2. Reciprocity
3. Binding and Enforceable committments
4. Transparency
5. Safety rules: Exception for certain reasons like enironment, public health, animal health etc. allowed.


  • Council for trade in Goods
  • Council for trade in Services
  • Council for Trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
  • Trade negotiations committee
All rules are agreed by members after negotiations where practice of consensus is followed.

Dispute settlement:- WTO members have agreed to use WTO for dispute settlement rather than take unilateral action if they think a member is violating rules. Case specific panels are appointed by Dispute Settlement Body(DSB), Appeallate body, Director general and Secretariat and Arbitrators. Priority is to settle through mutually agreeable settlement.
Accession to WTO may take a long time and terms are unique for every country. Country applies for membership, a working party studies and gives terms and conditions which are negotiated and sent to general council. Once general council approves, Protocol of Accession with Schedules, it is ratified by applicant’s parliament and it becomes a member.
WTO has 164 members and 22 observers(latest Afghanistan in 2016).  Biggest economies outside WTO are Iran and Algeria. WTO has around 60 agreement which it oversees including agreement on agriculture, general agreement on trade in services, agreement on technical barrier to trade and General agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property rights
Under Doha Round an agreement known as Bali Package was signed in 2013 during 9th Ministerial conference. It aims at lowering trade barriers. It consists of four areas:-Trade facilitation(legally binding; India accepted), Agriculture(for food security in developing countries; India runs NFSA under this), Cotton and Development and LDC issues.


1. Favours developed countries over developing countries, e.g. Agriculture subsidies, Non trade barriers, TRIPs etc.
2. Labour and environmental issues are ignored.
3. Green room discussions which are opaque drive agenda and not good for consensus and democratic nature. 
Note: New topics being added.

Belt and Road Initiative #UKPCS

China has renamed its OBOR(One Belt One Road) programme as BRI(The belt Road Initiative). It involved 60 countries and investment of about $900 bn by China in improving connectivity over land and sea with Asia and Europe. In fact recently China got its first shipment from Britain through train! Its purposes include energy security, geopolitical influence, outlet for Chinese material and labour as well as trade. 
The Belt(Silk Road Economic Belt, SREB) part includes three belts: Northern from Russia to Europe; Central from Central Asia to Mediterranean and Southern to South and South East Asia. It is also complemented by CPEC.
The Road(Maritime Silk Road) part includes infrastructure in several countries of Soth China Sea, South Pacific and Indian Ocean specially East Africa. 
The CPEC as well as BCIM would be closely related to BRI. The programme Nurly Zhol of Kazakhstan is also integrated with it.
These woks would also be financed by AIIB and Silk Road Fund.
Indian Position:- India objects to many aspects of BRI and is currently not part of it. Biggest objection is related to sovereignty of country as CPEC passes through PoK. Also we suspect that trade is not the real reason behind BRI but to spread influence including through String of Pearls. Being short of money, and having less friendly relations with neighbors we are unable to launch any such programme. However we rely on our soft power to balance Chinese influence in Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and South East Asia. We are building connectivity with ASEAN countries and also with Iran and Afghanistan(through Chabahar). We are also part of international North South Transport Corridor.

A very Brief outline of History of Uttarakhand for #UKPCS

This post would not be useful in spoonfeeding you the information about UK history, but may be usefully serve as a guide or a framework to locate Uttarakhand History in general history of India.

Proto and pre history:- Cave paintings at Lakhu Udyar and Gorkhyali Udyar; also some stone age tools; megaliths also found. Same as in other parts of country.
Epic era:- Mahabharat mentions Subahu, King of Kunindas from this area. Pandavas passed from here while going to Himalayas.
Earliest inscription:- At Kalsi(Dehradun) by King Ashoka. Shows it was an important area.
Sources of history:- Puranas give lists f Kings of various dynasties. Also coins provide names of Kings. Kumoan called Manas Khand and Garhwal as Kedar Khand. Both called Brahmpur together.
Post Kunindas:- Shakas etc. ruled in plains but Kunindas persisted in hills. Later Katyuri Kings ruled for significant time and built most of temples.
Katyuris:- Starting with Basantandeva, 3 dynasties. Ruled till 11th century. After them Panwars in Garhwal and Chandas in Kumoan. Katyuris later split into many branches and ruled under Chandas. Their capital was at Kartikeyapur and later at Baijnath.
Chandas:- Followed Katyuris in Kumaon. Originally came from Allahabad. Initially ruled in Champawat area but later shifted capital to Almora. Major Kings:- Gyan Chand, baj Bahadur Chand, Udyot Chand, Lakshmi Chand etc. Supplanted by Shah Kings of Garhwal during 18th century and later by Gorkhas in 1790.
Panwar Dynasty:- Ruled Garhwal starting with Kanakpal. Took title of Shah. Defeated Qarachil expedition of Tughlaq. Rani Karnawati. Supplanted by Gorkhas in 1805. Got back a shrunken kingdom from British and since then called Kings of Tehri.
Gorkhas- Ruled Kumaon for 25 years and Garhwal for 10 years. Defeated by British and by treaty of Sugauli gave the area of Uttarakhand to British.
British:-Since 1815, ruled by Commissioners such as Trail, Ramsey etc. 1857 revolt:-Kalu Mahra only revolutionary; Kumoan Parishad, Kuli Begar(Non Cooperation Movement), Chandra Singh Garhwali, Sridev Suman. Contribution of Uk in National Movement, INA etc.

Art and Architecture:- Paintings of Molaram, Pahari School of Architecture, Raghunath Temple

This is just a list of most important topics in very brief

Fill main centre for #UKPCS 2016

The option for filling main centre is live on ukpsc website. You can visit this link and fill your Exam Centre. There are two exam centres namely Haldwani in Kumaon and Haridwar in Garhwal. You have to enter your roll number and date of birth to select the choice. The fee payable for general candidate is Rs. 250 and can be filled by either Challan, Card payment or net banking.
The facility for submitting choice is open till 23.05.2017 and of submitting fee till 25.05.2017.

#Structure Of #Economy In #Uttarakhand

The economy of Uttarakhand has undergone massive change since the creation. What used to be an agricultural economy has now become dominated by services sector. Industrialisation has spread in the plains of Uttarakhand. People are leaving agriculture and it is significantly practiced only in plains now. The hill fields lie fallow and untilled due to lack of manpower and returns. The migration has accentuated all this. The composition of contribution of sectors to economy is as follows:-
Agriculture:- 9%
Industries:- 40%
Services:- 51%
For a period of ten years from 2004-05 to 2014-15 said Uttarakhand has emerged at the top by clocking the highest compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16.5 per cent and 12.3 per cent in industry and services sectors during the period among states across India. Services sector which includes hospitality and tourism, hotels and restaurants, transport, storage, communication, banking and finance and other such activities accounted for 51 per cent share in gross state domestic product (GSDP) in 2014-15 thereby increasing from 49.5 per cent in 2004-05. However, Uttarakhand’s performance in the agriculture sector and allied activities paints a grim picture as its share in the GSDP has declined sharply from over 22 per cent in 2004-2005 to just over 9 per cent in 2014-15. Considering that over 51 per cent of the state’s total workforce and about 67 per cent of total rural workers depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihood, Uttarakhand government should promote a separate policy for hill farming specially for horticulture, herbal farming, bee farming, mushroom farming etc.
Despite a facade of development, it should be remembered that Industries are in Uttarakhand only for tax reasons and profit is shifted elsewhere. Also many intermediate goods are manufactured here rather than finished goods. The jobs created by industry for Uttarakhand people are of low skill and mostly highly skilled jobs are taken by people from other stated. What we need is low skilled, non polluting and labour intensive sectors to be promoted in Uttarakhand. We should also think in terms of forward linkages and backward linkages which may establish Uttarakhand as a dominant state in certain products due to efficient supply chain management.
In services sector the story is similar. Its mainstay is tourism and hospitality along with hotels and restaurants. Not being a labour intensive sector, it has not produced enough jobs. However many unexplored and pristine locations present opportunity for high end high value tourism. We also have opportunities for paying guest model of airbnb. 
All of this ould also need better connectivity through roads and rail, storage and packaging facilities, educated and skilled human resource, energy and enabling environment including favourable tax policy, less bureaucratic hurdles etc. 


The revolt of 1857 and Uttarakhand. #UKPCS #History

I would attempt to write some articles about certain topics related to Uttarakhand, which may be important from the point of view of exams. Today we talk about 1857 revolt in Uttarakhand.
1857 was a seminal event in the History of India. It changed the British attitudes towards different parts of India and indeed changed the way in which India was governed. Its causes included the disenchantment of peasants, de-industrialisation and its effect on artisans, the loss of prestige and power of landed gentry, the anger of traditional religious leaders and other sundry effects of colonialisation. 
In Kumaon and Garhwal, the situation in 1857 remained peaceful except a few skirmishes with men under leadership of Kalu Mahra, Anand Fartyal and Bishen Kharayat in Champawat and Kali Kumaon region. Mostly the common people remained aloof from the revolt. The British administration not only stood tall but also defeated the rebels and stopped them from entering the hills. The administration even granted shelter to officers who had ran away from other nearby areas and provided for their salaries, upkeep etc. It also provided a route for accessing Nepal and got the Nepali Army to help the British in crushing the revolt.
What were the reasons?

1. The British had replaced the cruel and unjust Gorkha rule in 1815. Compared to Gorkha rule, British rule was found amiable by people of Uttarakhand. They did not want return of old Gorkha or Chand rule.
2. The Commissioner of Kumaon, Henry Ramsey was well respected due to his genial and down to earth nature as well as his tendency to listen to people’s grievances. His stature also helped in keeping Uttarakhand in favour of British.
3. The exploitative nature of colonialism was not obvious to the people of Uttarakhand.
4. The inaccessible and difficult terrain made it hard to coordinate any rebellion or even let the news of rebellion reach in the interior areas.
5. King of Tihri actually helped the British during the revolt as  he had been given his throne by British after 1815.
Effects of 1857 on Uttarakhand:-
1. The Garhwali and Kumaoni people were included in martial tribes and recruited in large numbers in Indian army, where they still serve in large numbers.
2. Indirectly economy of Uttarakhand grew due to money orders received from armymen.
3. The position of King of Tehri was strengthened after 1857 due to his loyalty.


Importance of #discipline during civil service preparation #UKPSC #UKPCS

Discipline is important in achieving anything that requires a high level of skill, be it in any area of life like music, craft, art, science etc. During my observation of Civil Service toppers both in UPSC and PCS, i have always found one thing in common: They were very disciplined. They had a set routine, which they followed religiously.
What actually sets an average aspirant apart from the toppers is their willingness to follow the same routine day after day for months on end. It is reflective of the aspirants’ commitment towards his/her goal. It looks easy, but is actually a tremendous drain on your mental strength and will power.
To work with such a routine an aspirant has to be cut off from distracting things. Avoid family functions, avoid wasting time, but do regular exercise. He has to make a long term plan and break it into short term goals that are achievable.
Success does not come easy. Please start preparation of Civil services if you are willing and capable to pay such a price.

Measurement of physical quantities and system of Units

Today we start our series on Science paper of UKPCS. As as been said, last year’s paper was difficult and this year you have to get 35% to qualify Main exam. Please provide your valuable inputs on facebook and the blog. In reference to this particular topic, it is your home work to look for definitions of all these units:-
#post1 #UKPCS #Science

  1. A unit is an established standard for a physical quantity against which particular examples of that physical quantity can be compared. The act of comparing a physical quantity to a unit is called MEASUREMENT and the MEASURE of a particular physical quantity is the ratio of that physical quantity to the unit. For example, let us take the physical quantity, distance, with a value of 25 metres. The units are metres, and if we divide 25 metres by metres, we get the measure which is 25. The measure is a numerical value. When we perform calculations, we manipulate the measure, not the physical quantity.
  2. Some physical quantities are chosen as base quantities. Other physical quantities are obtained from the base quantities using the appropriate algebraic relationships and these are called derived quantities .Base quantities are said to have base units and derived quantities have derived units. For example, if displacement and time are chosen to be base quantities, then velocity is a derived quantity. Note that metres/second is pronounced “metres per second”. By international convention seven physical quantities are chosen for use as dimensionally independent base quantities.

SI base units
Mostly the INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (which is abbreviated “SI”, from the French “le Système International d’ Unités”) as defined by the International Standards Organization is used. SI units are widely accepted and are established by law in most countries (the United States being a notable exception). The SI base units are shown in the table below.
Physical Quantity
Name of Unit
electric current
luminous intensity
amount of substance

SI derived units:
All SI units that are not base units are expressed as combinations of the base units.
Physical Quantity
SI Unit
solid angle
square metre
cubic metre
kilogram per cubic metre
metre per second
metre per second squared
mole per cubic metre

Physical Quantity
Name of Unit
electric charge
electric potential difference
electric resistance

SI prefixes
A SI prefix is a name that is added to the name of a basic unit and which indicates whether that unit is a multiple (or a fraction) of that unit. For example, the prefix “kilo” added to “meter” gives “kilometer”, which is a unit 1 000 times LARGER than the base unit “meter”. Similarly, the prefix “milli” added to “gram” gives “milligram”, which is a unit 1 000 times SMALLER than the base unit “gram”. The table shown below lists the names of approved SI prefixes.

SI Prefixes
Decimal multiples are formed by adding prefixes to the name of the SI unit. This avoids having to use cumbersome numbers of digits.

It is considered good practice to use prefixes representing 10 raised to a power which is a multiple of 3. For example, 100 ms is preferable to 10 cs or 1 ds.

For historical reasons, some multiples of SI units are given special names. While these units are not part of the SI, they are precisely defined in terms of SI units, as shown in the table below.
Physical Quantity
Name of Unit
10-10 m
Prefixes are added to the unit name, and written as one word, e.g. megawatt.

Compound prefixes such as millimicrometres are not used.

In the case of derived units, only one unit takes a prefix. We write km·s-1 and not mm·µs-1.
10-3 m3
103 kg
105 Pa
60 s
3600 s
86400 s


#UKPSC #UKPCS 2016 Main Exam Notification is out!!

The notification  of Main exam for UKPCS 2016 is out today. Here are the main points and important dates:-
1. Date for giving options for exam centre : 10.05.17 to 25.05.2017
2.To get Challan for submission of fee:- 10 to 23.05.2017
3. Last date of submitting Exam fee:-25.05.2017
4. To get application print out from website:- 25.05.2017
5. Lat date to submit form with documents:- 30.05.2017
6. Exam centres:- Haldwani and Haridwar
7. Fees:- Gen: 250; OBC/Independence Activist dependent/ex-servicemen: 150; SC/ST/PH:-100.

Please check the notification here. Also available on Old Documents page.

UKPCS Mains Science 2012 assessment and Strategy

UKPCS Mains Science 2012 paper was considered one of the toughest last year. Without preparation it was difficult to attempt this even for science background students. With the new rules of 30% minimum in each paper, it would be foolishness to overlook this paper. Some observations about last paper:-
1. Paper came from all three branches of Physics, chemistry and Biology as well as from Computer Science.
2. Almost all questions could be found in NCERT books.
3. Some conceptual questions were there but mostly factual and numerical were also there.
4. It is possible to score good in this paper. Infact this paper can differentiate serious aspirant from non serious aspirant.
1. For science students, read all the NCERT books and for Computer Science too.
2. For students of other stream, this could be a very tough paper. You should at least read some masala book like Science from Arihant or Lucent. Please focus on factual if you are unable to tackle numerical questions.
3. This paper’s preparation should take highest time in your schedule