UKPCS Science Chemistry: Petroleum product and there uses# 24

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Petroleum product and there uses:

Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Petroleum product and there uses# 24”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Varnish:# 23

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Varnish

Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. Varnish is traditionally a combination of a drying oil, a resin, and a thinner or solvent. Varnish has little or no color, is transparent, and has no added pigment, as opposed to paints or wood stains, which contain pigment and generally range from opaque to translucent. Varnishes are also applied over wood stains as a final step to achieve a film for gloss and protection. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Varnish:# 23”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: EXPLOSIVES:# 22

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

EXPLOSIVE

Explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

The potential energy stored in an explosive material may, for example, be

  • chemical energy, such as nitroglycerin or grain dust
  • pressurized gas, such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can
  • nuclear energy, such as in the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239

In contrast, some materials are merely combustible or flammable if they burn without exploding. The distinction, however, is not razor-sharp. Certain materials—dusts, powders, gasses, or volatile organic liquids—may be simply combustible or flammable under ordinary conditions, but become explosive in specific situations or forms, such as dispersed airborne clouds, or confinement or sudden release.

TYPES: Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: EXPLOSIVES:# 22”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: STEEL # 20

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

STEEL

Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Steel’s base metal is iron. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, carbon and so on. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: STEEL # 20”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Aluminium #19

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

ALMUNIUM 

Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below.

Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and its ability to resist corrosion. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades and window frames.

PRODUCTION: Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Aluminium #19”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: CEMENT#17

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete.

Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, and can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster). Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: CEMENT#17”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Lime #15

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

LIME

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides predominate. In the strict sense of the term, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Lime #15”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Bleaching Powder #13

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Bleaching Powder

Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. As a mixture with lime and calcium chloride, it is marketed as chlorine powder or bleach powder for water treatment and as a bleaching agent. It strongly smells of chlorine, owing to its slow decomposition in moist air. It is not highly soluble in water and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Bleaching Powder #13”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Baking soda #12

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Baking soda #12”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Sodium carbonate #11

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate), Na2CO3, is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Sodium carbonate #11”