UKPCS Science Chemistry: Petroleum product and there uses# 24

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Petroleum product and there uses:

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UKPCS Science Chemistry: EXPLOSIVES:# 22

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

EXPLOSIVE

Explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

The potential energy stored in an explosive material may, for example, be

  • chemical energy, such as nitroglycerin or grain dust
  • pressurized gas, such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can
  • nuclear energy, such as in the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239

In contrast, some materials are merely combustible or flammable if they burn without exploding. The distinction, however, is not razor-sharp. Certain materials—dusts, powders, gasses, or volatile organic liquids—may be simply combustible or flammable under ordinary conditions, but become explosive in specific situations or forms, such as dispersed airborne clouds, or confinement or sudden release.

TYPES: Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: EXPLOSIVES:# 22”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: DETERGENTS:# 21

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

DETERGENTS:

Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.

A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions. Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: DETERGENTS:# 21”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: DYE# 21

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

DYE

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

Both dyes and pigments are colored because they absorb some wavelengths of light more than others. In contrast to dyes, pigments are insoluble and have no affinity for the substrate. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: DYE# 21”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: STEEL # 20

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

STEEL

Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Steel’s base metal is iron. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, carbon and so on. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: STEEL # 20”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Aluminium #19

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

ALMUNIUM 

Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below.

Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and its ability to resist corrosion. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades and window frames.

PRODUCTION: Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Aluminium #19”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: GLASS #18

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

GLASS

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: GLASS #18”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: CEMENT#17

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete.

Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, and can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster). Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: CEMENT#17”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Properties of water #8

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

What are the Main Properties of Water?

This article will discuss the five main properties of water:

  1. Its attraction to polar molecules
  2. High-specific heat
  3. High heat of vaporization
  4. The lower density of ice
  5. High polarity

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UKPCS Science Chemistry: Physical change and Chemical change #5

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Comparison Chart- Physical change and Chemical change

BASIS FOR COMPARISONPHYSICAL CHANGECHEMICAL CHANGE
MeaningPhysical change refers to a change in which the molecules are rearranged but their internal composition remains same.Chemical Change is a process in which the substance transforms into a new substance, having different chemical composition.
ExampleTearing of paper, melting/freezing of water, cutting of trees, etc.Burning of wood/trees/paper, rusting of iron, setting of curd, etc.
NatureReversibleIrreversible
Original matterCan be recoveredCannot be recovered
InvolvesChange in physical properties of the substance, i.e. shape, size, color etc.Change in chemical properties and composition of the substance.
Product FormationNo new product is formed.New product is formed.
EnergyAbsorption and evolution of energy do not take place.Absorption and evolution of energy take place, during reaction.

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