The most important and most neglected part for Civil Services Preparation is answer writing. It is not about HOW MUCH YOU STUDY but CAN YOU WRITE within word limit and time frame. After UPPCS daily answer writing practice and UKPCS DAILY ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE, ORACLE IAS comes out with new initiative UPSC DAILY ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE.
‘The experience of relative deprivation is the primary reason for mobilization of dominant caste and demand for reservation’. Critically examine the above statement and also explain the concept of dominant caste. (250 words)
Explain caste system in brief
Explain dominant caste
Why relative deprivation among the dominant groups.
3. Conclusion/way forward
A form social hierarchy practiced by Hindus in India that has led to social division and inequality in society in every sphere of life – social, political and economic. Social inequality has led to feeling of marginalization and a sense of relative deprivation among various caste groups.
A dominant caste is one that wields economic or political power and occupies a fairly high position in caste hierarchy in a particular area. E.g. Jats in UP and Haryana, Kapus in AP, Patidars in Gujrat, Marathas in Maharastra etc. These castes have high population in their area and are primarily engaged in agriculture.
Relative deprivation is the feeling of serious discontent in comparison to some other social group due to lack of resources, privileges or opportunities. The feeling of relative deprivation was more prone among the lower caste groups and the scheduled tribes. However, in the last few decades in India there has an increasing sense of Relative Deprivation in dominant caste groups because:-
- structural change in economy that has led to decline in agriculture and rise of modern industries. With the decline in agriculture and fragmentation in land holding, agriculture has become economically unviable.
- Moreover, the failure of the dominant caste to get job opportunities in the modern industries due to lack of skills/education/industrial training
- Reservation of SC/STs has led to their being getting government jobs.
This has led to discontent and political mobilization of dominant caste groups with demands for reservation in govt jobs. E.g. agitation of Marathas, Jats, Patidars etc.
- Political parties have have supported such demands due to electoral politics and govts have also brought bills for separate reservation of these communities.
- Increasing social divisions between competing caste groups e.g Patidar and Kshtriyas in Gujarat, Marathas and SCs in Maharashtra.
Although providing reservation even above the 60% barrier is a stopgap measure, the long term solution should include inclusive growth, by providing quality employment opportunities.