UKPCS Answer writing practice Polity & IR #27

The most important and most neglected part for Civil Services Preparation is answer writing. It is not about HOW MUCH YOU STUDY but CAN YOU WRITE within word limit and time frame. After UPPCS daily answer writing practice, ORACLE IAS comes out with new initiative UKPCS DAILY ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE.)

1.What is the Asian Enigma? State some measures taken by the government to tackle it. (125 words)
एशियाई पहेली क्या है? सरकार द्वारा इससे निपटने के लिए क्या प्रयास किए गए हैं|
2.Critically analyse the Morley- Minto reforms(1909). Also state its importance in larger constitutional development of India| (250 words)
मार्ले मिंटो सुधारो की समालोचनात्मक समीक्षा करें| इनका भारत के वृहद संवैधानिक विकास में क्या महत्व है|

  1. Poverty is often the underlying cause of child malnutrition, and while South Asia has recently experienced impressive economic growth and reduced poverty, this has not translated into improved nutrition. The region fares worse than any other developing region including Sub-Saharan Africa. This mystery is known as Asian Enigma. The major reasons are open defection particularly in areas of high population density lower status of woman etc.

Measures taken by the government are:

  1. Reducing the incidence of open defection by promoting program like Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
  2. Improving child nutrition status by program like mid day meal scheme, ICDS etc.
  3. Improving the status of women in society by program like NRLM, Stand up India, JSY, Sabla, Priyadarshini etc.

 

  1. Morley-Minto reforms were a part of series of constitutional reforms in British India.

The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer and could afford no answer to the Indian political problem.

· The ‘constitutional’ reforms were, in fact, aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks by confusing the Moderates and at checking the growth of unity among Indians through the obnoxious instrument of separate electorates.
· The Government aimed at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism. The officials and the Muslim leaders often talked of the entire community when they talked of the separate electorates, but in reality it meant the appeasement of a small section of the Muslim elite only.
· Congress considered separate electorate to be undemocratic and hindering the development of a shared Hindu-Muslim Indian national feeling.
· And, while parliamentary forms were introduced, no responsibility was conceded, which sometimes led to thoughtless and irresponsible criticism of the Government. Only some members like Gokhale put to constructive use.
· The reforms of 1909 gave to the people of the country a shadow rather than substance. The people had demanded self-government but what they were given was ‘benevolent despotism’.

 

The Act of 1909 was important for the following reasons:
· It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time, though previously some Indians had been appointed to legislative councils.
· The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentary system even though this was contrary to the intent of Morley.

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