The most important and most neglected part for Civil Services Preparation is answer writing. It is not about HOW MUCH YOU STUDY but CAN YOU WRITE within word limit and time frame. After UPPCS daily answer writing practice and UKPCS DAILY ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE, ORACLE IAS comes out with new initiative UPSC DAILY ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE.
‘Disaster management in India should shift focus from response/recovery to mitigation/adaption’. Discuss it in the light of the flooding in various part of India. (250 words)
‘ भारत में आपदा प्रबंधन को राहत एवं बचाव कार्य के अलावा रोकथाम एवं अनुकूलन की तरफ ध्यान केंद्रित करने की आवश्यकता है ।’ हाल ही में भारत में बाढ़ की विभिन्न घटनाओं के आलोक में चर्चा करें।
Flood reasons and predictability.
- DM 4 phases
- Where we lack and strategies to remedy situation
Example worth emulating and generic things to do.
Almost 12% of India is prone to floods due to overflowing rivers, cloud burst, storm surge or inadequate drainage. These are a yearly occurrence and bring death and destruction in their wake.
Being a predictable disaster, the management of floods should be spread across all 4 phases of disaster management cycle:
- Mitigation: preventing future threat of disaster and/or minimizing their damaging effects of unavoidable threat.
- Disaster preparedness:It includes plans or preparations made in advance of an emergency that help individuals and communities get ready to either respond or to recover.
- Disaster response:It includes any actions taken during or immediately following an emergency, e.g. to save lives and to prevent further property damage.
- Disaster recovery:It involves restoring, rebuilding, and reshaping the impacted area.
Since the tsunami of 2004 and NDM Act, India has stepped up its response and recovery capabilities by establishing authorities, control rooms, specialised manpower as well as protocols. But the losses of life and property during recent floods(despite exemplary rescue operations) point to a deficiency in mitigation, adaptation and preparedness. We need to take below steps:-
- For mitigation, strategies such as flood-proofing, flood insurance, restricting overpopulation of flood prone areas , making embankments and levees, town planning and reforestation etc. should be taken up.
- For adaptation and preparation we need land use control, early warning systems, emergency communication(community radio), training community volunteers, evacuation plans, holding disaster drills, emergency medical service plans, etc.
Recent examples of supercyclones in Odisha(Phailin and Fani) could be used to learn valuable lessons(although loss of property was considerable). We need a paradigm shift from relief-centric approach to a proactive, holistic and integrated approach of strengthening disaster adaptation, mitigation, and response and recovery.