UPPCS Mains GS 2 Model Answers 2019

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Oracle IAS presents to you UPPCS Mains 2019 GS paper 2  model answers.

For UPPCS GS 1 model answers click here

We had also initiated UPPCS Mains test series few months back along with UPPCS Mains Daily answer writing program. Many questions that were part of the initiatives appeared in the UPPCS Mains real paper.

Instructions for UPPCS Mains 2019 GS Paper-2

  • UPPSC conducted general studies paper 1 for state civil services mains examination.
  • Duration: 3 hours; Maximum Marks: 200
  • Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting questions:
  • There are TWENTY questions printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH. Question 1-10 questions carry 8 marks each (125 words) & questions 11-20 carry 12 marks each (200 words)
  • All the questions are compulsory.
  • Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QC4) Booklet in the space provided.
  • No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one.
  • Word limit in questions, wherever specified should be adhered to.
  • Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

 

UPPCS Mains Short Answer Questions ::(125 words, 8 marks)

 

  1. Why is India opposed to mediation on Kashmir?

Intro

Kashmir issue refers to the illegal occupation of parts of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir by Pakistan and China. This has led to multiple wars with Pakistan and constant hostilities at LoC between India and Pakistan.

Body

Why India opposed to mediation:-

  • The instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh forms legal basis of India’s exclusive claim on JnK and it does not require any mediation to establish this.
  • The Simla Agreement of 1972 between India and Pakistan states clearly that all issues between India and Pak will be solved bilaterally and peacefully.
  • There have been instances in history when mediation has facilitated more complication{e.g. by Allied powers in Czechoslovakia}
  • India is a strong nation with an independent foreign policy and capable of dealing with its own issues.

Conclusion

Thus India is opposed to mediation as it would mean internationalising the issue which is neither legally sound, nor in national interest.

Note:- If possible, draw a map showing PoK, Aksai Chin and Siachin.

 

  1. Critically examine the jurisdiction of International Court of Justice.

Intro

International Court of Justice, estb in 1945, is a principle organ of the UNO. It is located in the Hague and has judges from different countries including currently Dalveer Bhandari from India.

Body

ICJ has Jurisdictionin :-

  • cases between states in which the court produces binding rulings between states that agree, or have previously agreed, to submit to the ruling of the court
  • and advisory opinions, which provide reasoned, but non-binding, rulings on properly submitted questions of international law

ICJ’s jurisdiction also suffers from certain limitations:-

  • It has no true compulsory jurisdiction as international law is considered ‘soft law’ and states can ignore its orders without inviting contempt or any action. E.g. Pakistan has not provided consular access to KulbhushanJadhav despite orders by the court.
  • It has no mechanism to get its orders implemented.

Conclusion

For a rules based international order, ICJ should be provided with more compulsory jurisdiction and an established and robust mechanism of penalties for rouge parties/nations.

 

  1. Throw light on the challenges and problems of farmers and agriculture sector in Uttar Pradesh. Suggest measures for improvement.

Intro

Farming and agri sector is UP is diverse depending upon climatic regions, penetration of extension services, cropping pattern etc. There is widespread rural poverty and dismal social indicators due to various challenges and problems in agri sector.

 

Body

Challenges and problems:-.

  • Land reforms have not been carried out faithfully leading to landlessness and low productivity in fragmented holdings.
  • Access to inputs including water{specially in water scarce areas like Bundelkhand}, electricity, improved seeds, fertilizers and creditetcis poor in all areas except West UP.
  • Post-harvest storage and logistics infra including roads , cold storage /coldchains and processing facilities is poor.
  • Investment is low leading to vicious cycle of unproductivity.
  • Poor marketing infra and legal structure leading to farmers being forced to sell at unremunerative prices.
  • Very less protection from risk {low insurance coverage}

Measures for improvement:-

Renewed focus on land reforms, coupled with financial inclusion, infrastructure creation and capacity building is needed. For this information technology can also be leveraged and govt schemes need to show convergence.

 

  1. What are electoral bonds? Are they capable of bringing transparency in the political funding system?

Intro

Electoral bonds are a banking instrument that allow a donor to anonymously donate to a political party of her choice, through banking channel. Political parties with 1% vote share in national or state elections can receive funds through EBs in a designated account.

Body

Issues with electoral bonds:-

  • Due to lack of disclosure requirements for individuals purchasing electoral bonds these electoral funding even more opaque. It may bring more and more black money into the political system.
  • Businessman may round trip their money to political parties and then lobby for a change in policy that benefits them.
  • Electoral bonds eliminate the 7.5% cap on company donations which means even loss-making companies can make unlimited donations to parties they do not have to declare names of.
  • It may benefit the ruling party more as they may be aware of the donor through Bank’s KYC.

Conclusion

Thus these may bring transparency for the govt, but for people it does not bring any transparency and Election Commission has opposed it from time to time.

 

  1. What has been the impact of Self-Help-Groups{SHGs} on India’s rural life?

Intro

Self Help Groups (SHGs) are small groups of poor people{mostly women} with similar problems. These promote small savings, micro lending and entrepreneurship among their members. The savings are kept with the bank under SHG Bank Linkage programme.

Impact of SHGs:-

  • Economically it has led to inclusion of women in formal economy{e.g. LizzatPapad of Kanpur}.
  • It has also led to unity of women in political matters{e.g. promise of prohibition by many political parties to please women groups}
  • Socially it has led to better education of girl child, better health standards and higher status of women due to economic independence.
  • Govt has leveraged these in convergence of schemes like in infra creation, forest conservation etc.{in Uttarakhand.}

Conclusion

Thus SHGs have brought positive changes in rural India, but there is a need for capacity building specially in accounting, record keeping and skill training to improve the socio-economic impacts.

 

  1. 6. Write a short note on the contribution of the Indian Diaspora towards economic structure of India.

Intro:-

Indian diaspora refers to persons of Indian origin and non-resident Indians, living outside India. These are concentrated in Gulf countries, USA, UK etc. and have migrated in various waves starting from 19th century.

Body

Contribution towards economic structure:-

  • NRI are one of the biggest sources of forex in India and send remittances worth more than $50 billion every year. Most of it is from Gulf countries.
  • Diaspora also promotes investment into India. An example is investment by Vedanta and Arcelor-Mittal.
  • The diaspora also helps lobbying with foreign govts., creates a pressure group for India-favoring policies, create markets for Indian exports and also help in social welfare in India by donations.
  • Also, India gets much tourism revenue from Diaspora.

Conclusion

Indian diaspora is a major source of forex and is helping transform Indian economy, however govt should learn from Chinese experiment and leverage our Diaspora more dynamically.

 

  1. In what ways does the Indian federal system differ from the federal system in USA? Explain.

Structure:

  1. Intro: What is federalism
  2. Difference between the Indian and USA system

Federalism is a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government.

The difference between USA and Indian system are:

  1. Indian federalism is holding together federalism where a big unitary state is converted into smaller units. American federalism is coming together federalism where number of weak states come together to form a union.
  2. Indian federalism is also called quasi federal system as the centre is more powerful. In American system both the units are strong.
  3. India has one constitution for both centre and state while in the American system both centre and state have separate constitution.
  4. India has indestructible union with destructible states while USA is defined as indestructible union with indestructible states.
  5. Indian constitution is a blend of rigidity and flexibility. The American constitution is rigid in nature.
  6. In India there is no equality of representation in upper house (RS) while in USA each state has equal representation.
  7. In India we have single citizenship while in USA there is dual citizenship.

 

  1. Describe those special powers of the council of states (RajyaSabha) which are not enjoyed by the LokSabha, under the Indian constitution.

In majority of the cases the LokSabha enjoys more power than the RajyaSabha. However , in certain cases the constitution gives special powers to the RajyaSabha:

  • Under Art. 67, a resolution seeking the removal of the Vice-President can originate only in the RajyaSabha. After the RajyaSabha passes such a resolution by a majority of the then members of the House, it goes for approval of the LokSabha.
  • Any resolution seeking creation of one or more All-India Services, including All-India Judicial Services, if such is necessary or expedient in the national interest, can only be initiated in the RajyaSabha. Only after the RajyaSabha passes a resolution to this effect by a special majority, i.e.. Two-thirds of the members present and voting, can the Parliament legislate on this. (Article 312)
  • A resolution seeking legislation on any subject of the State List can only originate in the RajyaSabha, if it thinks that such is necessary or expedient in the national interest (Art. 249).

 

  1. Evaluate the use of VVPAT in general election of India.

 

The Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballot less voting system. The VVPAT is an independent printer system attached with Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) that allows the voters to verify that their votes are cast as intended.

Significance and the need for VVPATs:

 

  • The VVPAT helps to detect potential election fraud or malfunction in the EVM.
  • The EVMs with VVPAT system ensure the accuracy of the voting system with fullest transparency and restores the confidence of the voters.
  • EVMs and VVPATs also speed up the election process as counting votes on EVMs takes much lesser time than counting paper ballots.

Issues:

The opposition has alleged that there is huge tempering with the EVMs and filed a petition in SC. The EC organized hackathon  and matches 5 VVPAT  per constituency in order to prove the reliability of the EVMs.

  1. Examine the constitutional position of the CAG.

Structure:

  1. Articles in the constitution
  2. Function
  3. Appointment and removal

 

The articles 148- 151 of the constitution deals with the position and function of the CAG.

The CAG is a constitutional authority which audits all receipts and expenditure of theGovernment of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. The CAG submits three reports to the president – audit report on appropriation account, finance account and public undertaking. The audits are reviewed by the Public Accounts Committees of the Parliament of India and State legislative bodies. The CAG also controls the Indian Audit and Accounts Service.

The CAG is appointed by the President of India. He holds office for a period of 6 years or up to the age of 65 years. He can be removed by the president on same grounds and in the same manner as a judge of Supreme Court.

 

UPPCS Mains Long answer question: (200 words,12 marks)

 

  1. How will the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan affect India? Comment.

The US withdrawal will have significant impact on Afghanistan’s neighbours like India.

Political– Engagements with the civilian government in jeopardy with likely rise of Taliban forces
Strategic- India’s investments in Chabahar may head towards a peril. Moreover, situation may turn hostile in J&K due to leeway gained by non-state actors.
Economic– Heavy investments in Afghanistan in the form of Afghan Parliament building, Salma Dam etc may turn futile
Social– With US troops withdrawing without resolving the problem, the natives would look towards better avenues in terms of migration. This may create refugee crisis in India.
Space for Pakistan– The political vacuum in Afghanistan may give Pakistan the space to strengthen its foothold in Afghanistan.

Hence India must looks towards peaceful and collaborative alternatives to handle the situation. Following strategies may be adopted-
– With US withdrawing, it may give more space to Iran and Russia. Indian must engage in tripartite talks with these powers to evolve a peaceful solution.
– Involve the civilian government in Afghanistan in any peace talks
– Use the goodwill it has earned to strengthen Anti-Taliban forces
– Increase military presence in border areas and boost up intelligence

Conclusion

India must step beyond conventional diplomacy and provide material and monetary aid. It must also ensure that any decision towards peaceful engagement must be done with the consent of the native population.

 

  1. Discuss the nature of India China relations in the light of OBOR.

One Belt, One Road (OBOR)/BRI is China’s much-touted new foreign and economic policy. It is a development strategy to connect China with Central Asia, Europe, and Indo-Pacific littoral countries.

India’s concern with OBOR:

  • India argues that the BRI and China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project violates its sovereigntybecause it passes through the part of the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (POK) that belongs to India.
  • China intruding into its sphere of influence: China is planning to extend the CPEC to Afghanistan. Meanwhile, Maldives, Nepal, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are eagerly pursuing potential BRI projects. Moreover, India is concerned with the China’s presence in the Indian Ocean. (Strings of pearl)
  • Through OBOR, China is countering the strategies of India in North East region and is promoting its greater presence in North East India, part of which China claims as its own territory. This may have a security impact on India.

Conclusion

Due to above concerns India has refused to join the OBOR. India has initiated connectivity projects of its own: Project Mausam, SagarMala, Chabhar Port, developing naval ports(assumption island), giving development assistance to neighboring countries, Asia- Africa growth corridor etc. Theoretically, if India’s political and strategic concerns are met, the initiative could be seen as viable, particularly given that many of the projects envisaged under the BCIM (Bangladesh China India Myanmar) corridor and the Asian Highway project would dovetail into OBOR.

 

  1. The action of Indian Government on Article 370 has changed the status quo in Jammu and Kashmir. How will it affect the development in the region? Discuss.

Indian Parliament on Aug 5 passed an amendment bill to abrogate Article 370 which gave special status in the federal structure of India. It was argued by the govt that it would positively affect the development of India:-

  • Article 370 was a hurdle in developmental initiatives of govt of India as it required additional legislation on part of State govt to implement those initiatives. This includes RTI, RTe etc. too.
  • Jammu and Kashmir also did not have all the fundamental rights available to citizens of India, which will now be available to them thereby ensuring socio-economic development.
  • The women of Jammu and Kashmir also did not have equal property rights which will now be available to them after abrogation of Article 370.
  • Now that it has been divided into two UTs {from 31st of October}, its administration would come under central govt leading to efficient administration and law and order situation as seen in Delhi and Chandigarh.
  • Investment from outside and inside India would also flow to Kashmir, if the land acquisition/lease requirement are relaxed, leading to economic development and employment.
  • Due to application of RTI etc, there would be less corruption and more money would reach its targeted destination.

 

However, some politicians and scholars have also cautioned that a prolonged insurgency might start in J&K and it may negatively impact the development of the state.

  1. Discuss the reasons, objectives and functions of NITI Aayog and describe the recently re-organised NITI Aayog.

NITI Aayog replaced erstwhile planning commission.

Reasons for NITI Aayog

  • The 65 year-old Planning Commission had become a redundant organization. It was relevant in a command economy structure, but not any longer.
  • India is a diversified country and its states are in various phases of economic development along with their own strengths and weaknesses.
  • In this context, a ‘one size fits all’ approach to economic planning is obsolete. It cannot make India competitive in today’s global economy.

Objectives and Functions of NITI Aayog

  • To enhance the involvement of States in decision making process by fostering cooperative federalism.
  • To promote innovation, knowledge and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts.
  • Incorporating National security in economic strategy and policy.
  • To maintain state-of-the-art resource center for best practices in sustainable and equitable development and promote good governance.
  • Formulate the strategies at village level and integrate these at higher levels of government.
  • To work towards the technology up-gradation for implementation of policies.
  • The design framework for strategic and long-term policies and monitor their progress.

Conclusion

The NITI Aayogis  a premiere think tank of GOI. It has been able to foster cooperative and competitive federalism in India. However, NITI Aayog has been confined to writing reports on the Indian economy, preparing draft laws for the Union government, evaluating central schemes and holding conferences with state government officials.  It is too early to evaluate its performance.

 

  1. What are the main issues related to poverty and hunger?

 

Poverty refers to relative deprivation of an individual or a section of society. However, absolute poverty is the condition in which an individual/group is not able to fulfil even their basic needs in his income{according to World Bank<$1.9/day/person. Issues related to poverty:-

  • Measurement of poverty and identification of Poor: Govt as well has planning commission constituted many committees for measurement of poverty in India including Lakdawala, Tendulkar, Hashim etc. but there are still debates about poverty line.
  • Targeting of beneficiaries is a major issue as govt currently uses SECC 2011 data which has many inclusion and exclusion errors. Also new processes like aadhaar linking etc. sometimes lead to exclusion of genuine poor.
  • Keeping people out of poverty by providing them safety nets is also a big issue.

Due to these issues, many experts favour rights based universal entitlement approach for removal of poverty.

Hunger is the condition in which body does not receive sufficient nutrition. It is generally coorelated with poverty but can also be found in people above official poverty line. Issues related to hunger:-

  • Food security is a major issue and to deal with it govt keeps buffer stocks as well as runs PDS to provide subsidized grains to the people. But many segments e.g urban homeless, poor migrants, beggers etc. do not have access to food security schemes.
  • Hidden hunger refers to lack of micronutrients like vitamins and minerals in food, so even though a person gets sufficient food, he does not have sufficient nutrition. Govt tries to provide nutritious mid day meals, fortified grains etc for this.
  • Double burden of malnutritionis characterised by the coexistence of undernutrition along with overweight and obesity, or diet-related noncommunicable diseases.

Hunger in India and has led to the Asian Enigma.

 

  1. Clarify e-governance. Explain the features and advantages of e-governance. What are the main challenges before it?

E-Governance can be defined as the application of communication and information technology for providing government services, exchange of information, transactions, integration of previously existing services and information portals. Digital India campaign aims at promoting e-governance in India.

Features of e governance:

  • G2G: Government to Government  egs.
  • G2C: Government to Citizen egs. E-mitra, E- vihaan
  • G2B: Government to Business egs. GEMS
  • G2E: Government to Employee

 

Advantages of e governance

  1. Participation and equity
    It allows all the citizens access and communicate with the government irrespective of gender, caste, race etc.
  2. Transparency and accountability
    E governance allows free flow of info thus ensuring transparency and accountability.
  3. Responsiveness
    It makes the government more responsive to citizens demand.
  4. Effectiveness and Efficiency
    It increases effectiveness and efficiency of the system
  5. Convenience: E-Government brings public services to citizens on their schedule and their venue.

 

Challenges

  1. Lack of robust infrastructure: India lacks reliable infrastructure. Bharatnet that aims at connecting 2.5 lakhs panchayats is running behind schedule.
  2. Resistance to change: The government bureaucracy is very slow in adopting new technology.
  3. Digital divide exists among communities, geographical areas and class of people.
  4. Privacy and security: The digital infrastructure is prone to hacking egsGhostnet
  5. Language: Most of the applications are available in English and not in vernacular language.
  6. High IT Illiteracy: Majority of people are digitally illiterate and thus not able to access services.

Conclusion

The Indian and state governments are making efforts to adopt and promote e governance. Egs.

  1. In the Monsoon session of the Indian Parliament in 2019, amendments were made in the anti-terror law and the Right to Information Act. What are the significant changes as a result of these amendments? Analyse.

 

Anti terror law in India refers to Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 an amendment to which was passed recently. The amendments :-

  • Give wider powers to the centre for declaring an organisation as terrorist if it commits or participates in acts of terrorism, prepares for terrorism, promotes terrorism, or is otherwise involved interrorism.
  • Govt can now designate a person as terrorist also on the same grounds
  • Gives powers to NIA to seize property, without reference to state police.
  • Provides NIA Inspector level officers powers to investigate.

This has been defended by govt as being necessary to counter terror as persons could have changed names of organisations and continue their work, now if person is designated, he may be apprehended at initial stage.

However opposition terms it as too much power in hand of govt without judicial scrutiny and this could be used against civil society activists.

Amentments in RTI Act:-

  • Empower the Union govt to notify the term of office for the CIC and the ICs.
  • removes the provisions for equivalence of central and state CIC and ICs with CEC, CS etcand states that the salaries, allowances, and other terms and conditions of service of the central and state CIC and ICs will be determined by the central government.
  • It removes provisions for reduction in salary of CIC/ICs if they were already getting some pension.

It is alleged that these would undermine independence of CICs/ICs and also undermine federalism.

  1. Examine right to Equality as a Fundamental Right in the Constitution of India.

 

Refer Laxmikanth. Easies question.

  1. 19. Write a short note on the emergence and use of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms in India. (200 words)

Intro:

The concept of ADR mechanism is capable of providing a substitute to the conventional methods of resolving disputes. ADR offers to resolve all type of matters including civil, commercial, industrial and family etc., Generally, ADR uses neutral third party who helps the parties to communicate, discuss the differences and resolve the dispute. It is a method which enables individuals and group to maintain co-operation, social order and provides opportunity to reduce hostility. It involves Negotiation ,Mediation,Arbitration, and LokAdalat

Body:

Emergence of ADR:

  • ADR picked up pace in the country, with the coming of the East India Company with the passage of Bengal regulation Act. Many later arbitration acts promoted ADR in different areas of law.
  • It was also favoured in Industrial disputes before conflict.
  • LokAdalats were introduced in India in 1982.
  • Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 was enforced from 1987.

Use:-

  • Family law
  • Corporate law
  • Industrial dispute

 

 

  1. Describe the composition and functions of CBI in India. (200 words)

Intro:

The CBI is not a statutory body. It derives its powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.The CBI is the main investigating agency of the Central Government. It was established on the recommendation of Santhanamcommitteen in 1963.

Body:

Composition:  The CBI is headed by a Director. He is assisted by a Special Director or an Additional Director. Additionally, it has a number of joint directors, deputy inspector generals, superintendents of police and all other usual ranks of police personnel.

With the enactment of CVC Act, 2003, the superintendence of Delhi Special Police Establishment vests with the Central Government save investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, in which, the superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission. The Director of CBI has been provided security of two-year tenure in office by the CVC Act, 2003 (VineetNarain Case).

Functions of CBI

  1. Investigating cases of corruption, bribery and misconduct of Central government employees
  2. Investigating cases relating to infringement of fiscal and economic laws, that is, breach of laws concerning export and import control etc.
  3. Investigating serious crimes, having national and international ramifications, committed by organized gangs of professional criminals.
  4. Coordinating the activities of the anti-corruption agencies and the various state police forces.
  5. Taking up, on the request of a state government, any case of public importance for investigation.

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