UPPSC-UPPCS Mains- Answer writing practice #54

UPPSC/UPPCS Mains- Answer writing practice

Discuss the limitations and impact of socio-religious movement during British India. (200 words)

ब्रिटिश भारत के दौरान सामाजिक-धार्मिक आंदोलन की सीमाओं और प्रभाव पर चर्चा करें। (200 शब्द)


Model Answer

The 19th century socio-religious reform movements had the following limitations:
· Narrow social base: These reforms in practice affected a very small minority, namely the educated and urban middle classes, while the needs of vast masses were ignored. Widespread illiteracy in the rural areas implied very limited audience to these movements, mainly urban-based.
· Mysticism and pseudo-scientific thinking: The tendency of reformers to appeal to the greatness of the past and to rely on scriptural authority encouraged mysticism in new garbs and fostered pseudoscientific thinking.
· Lack of unity and a sound organization along with localized nature of these movements limited their impact.

Despite these limitations, the reform movements had far reaching impact on the Indian society such as:
· The soil for the growth of Indian nationalism and political awakening was prepared by these reform movements. For e.g. Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ram Krishan Mission and Theosophical Society.
· Spirit of self-reliance and determination: Reformation started by Swami Dayanand, Swami Vivekananda, Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar and R.N.Tagore gave a new life and a new spirit to the people of India.
· Contribution in the field of Education: Reformers had done a lot of work in the field of education and opened many colleges and schools for Indian masses. For example, Hindu College, Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College etc.
· Modern ideas: These reform movements emphasized on political, social, economic and religious liberty and fundamental rights, which were later adopted as basic features in the Indian Constitution after independence.
· Attack on the rigidities of the caste system: These reform movements worked for the welfare of the lower castes and improving their status in the society.
· Impact on the status of women in the society: They tried to ameliorate the status of women in the society through reforms like the eradication of the evil practice of Sati, education of women, widow re-marriage, etc.


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