UPPSC/UPPCS Mains- Answer writing practice
In which regions of the world iron ore is produced. Discuss the factors that influence the location of iron and steel industry. (200 w)
विश्व के किन क्षेत्रों में लौह अयस्क का उत्पादन होता है। उन कारकों पर चर्चा करें जो लोहे और इस्पात उद्योग के स्थान को प्रभावित करते हैं।
Major iron ore producing regions in the world are:
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. China is among the world’s largest producer and consumer of iron-ore, where Manchurian deposits are the most actively mined. It is followed by Australia(Mt. Gold-worthy, Mt Whaleback) Brazil (Carajas iron ore reserves), India (Mayurbhanj, Baba Budangiri), Russia(Ural mountains, Tula region), Ukraine(Lipetsk, Kerch peninsula), South Africa(Transvaal), United States(Lake Superior, Pennsylvania), Canada, Iran, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Venezuela, Mexico, and Mauritania.
Factors influencing the locations of Iron and steel industries:
Raw material: Mostly large integrated steel plants are located close to source of raw materials, as they use large quantity of heavy and weight losing raw materials.
Market: In order to minimize high transportation costs due to heavy and bulky materials, the plants are located near to the market, especially mini steel plants, as seen in Maharashtra. ‘Tokyo-Yokohama’ and ‘Osaka – Kobe – Heemeji’ iron steel regions are market based.
Capital: Iron and steel industry is a capital intensive industry. The requirement of capital is fulfilled either by big corporate or by government and other financial agencies.
Labour: Availability of cheap labour is also important. Example: Rourkhela plant, Orisa; Bhilai steel plant in Chattisgarh, mostly in Chota Nagpur region.
Electricity: Availability of electricity mostly hydro and water for cooling is a strong deciding factor. Example: Kar near river Bhadra, Bokaro steel plant on banks of river Damodar, Visheshwarya steel plant.
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