UKPCS Science Life Sciences_animal_bio: Blood Type (1)# 20

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Blood type

.A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antigens and also based on the presence or absence of inheritedantigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system.

Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone’s blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, − or Null denoting RhD status).

Types of system:

ABO blood group system

In human blood there are two antigens and antibodies. The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B. The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B. The antigens are present in the red blood cells and the antibodies in the serum. Regarding the antigen property of the blood all human beings can be classified into 4 groups and antibodies present together with the antigens are found as follows:

  1. Antigen A with antibody B
    2. Antigen B with antibody A
    3. Antigen AB has no antibodies
    4. Antigen nil (group O) with antibody A and B.

There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody (for example, antigen A agglutinates the antibody A and antigen B agglutinates the antibody B). Thus, transfusion can be considered safe as long as the serum of the recipient does not contain antibodies for the blood cell antigens of the donor.

For example- people with type  A blood will have A antigen on the surface of their red cells.as a result,anti A antibody will not be produced by them because they would cause the destruction on their own blood.

However , if B blood type is injected into their system,anti B antibodies in their plasma will recognize it an alien and burst or agglutinate the introduced red cell in order to cleanse the blood of alien protein .

*individuals  with type O blood do not produce ABO antigens. Therefore their blood normally not be rejected when it is given to others with different ABO TYEPES .as a result type O people are UNIVERSAL DONOR  for transfusion ,but they can only receive type O blood .

*those who have type AB blood group do not make ABO antibody .their blood does not discriminate against other ABO types,so they are said to UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTS for transfusion  but their blood will agglutinate when given to people with any other type because they produced both kinds of antigens.

The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The A, B, and O blood groups were first identified by Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901.

 

Rh blood group system

The Rh system (Rh meaning Rhesus) is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen, because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens. The presence or absence of the Rh(D) antigen is signified by the + or – sign.

for example::>. the A− group is ABO type A and does not have the Rh (D) antigen.

And the A+ group is ABO type A and has the Rh(D) antigen.


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