Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Life Sciences (paper 6)
- Bio fertilizers
Biofertilizer is one of the best modern tools for agriculture. Bio fertilizer contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Living microorganisms are used in the preparation of Bio fertilizers. Only those microorganisms are used which have specific functions to enhance plant growth and reproduction.
There are different types of microorganisms which are used in the biofertilizers. Some are capable of nitrogen fixation such as Azotobacter, Blue green algae Rhizobium and Azospirillum.
Biopesticides, a contraction of ‘biological pesticides‘, include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control – and by implication – the manipulation of living organisms. Biopesticides are biological or biologically-derived agents, that are usually applied in a manner similar to chemical pesticides, but achieve pest management in an environmentally friendly way. Biopesticides already play an important role in controlling downy mildew diseases.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
- Genetically Modified crops
A GM or transgenic crop is a plant that has a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
A GM crop can contain a gene(s) that has been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring it through pollination. The resulting plant is said to be “genetically modified” although in reality all crops have been “genetically modified” from their original wild state by domestication, selection, and controlled breeding over long periods of time.
Biotechnology in industries:-
- Improvement in Fermentation Products
- Microbial Production of Synthetic Fuels
- Microbial Mining or Bioleaching
- Microbial Biomass and Single Cell Protein Production
- Production of Enzymes and Human Proteins
- Production of Secondary Metabolites from Cultured Plant Cell
- Molecular Farming for Healthcare Products.
Industrial biotechnology can be used to:
- Create new products, such as plant-based biodegradable plastics;
- Replace petroleum-based feedstocks by processing biomass in biorefineries to produce electricity, transport fuels or chemicals;
- Modify and develop new industrial processes, such as by using enzymes to reduce the amount of harsh chemicals used the textile or pulp and paper industries;
- Reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing; for example by treating industrial wastewater onsite using biological mediums such as microbes.
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