UKPCS Science Life Sciences_Biotechnology: Government Initiatives, Pharmaceutical Industry: #33

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Life Sciences (paper 6)

Efforts of government in promoting biotechnology:-

The biotechnology sector of India is highly innovative and is on a strong growth trajectory. The sector is one of the most significant sectors in enhancing India’s global profile as well as contributing to the growth of the economy. India has no dearth of talent in biotechnology, as a number of institutions, both government and autonomous, provide the necessary opportunities for the students seeking to obtain a degree in this sector. The Government of India has provided adequate scope to this sector by providing facilities for Research and Development (R&D) in the field of biotechnology

Government Initiatives

A Network of Technology Centres and promotion of start-ups by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) are among the steps taken by the Government of India to promote innovation and entrepreneurship in the agro industry proposed by the Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) in a new scheme. The Government of India has taken several initiatives to improve the biotechnology sector in the country as well as offer enough scope for research in this field. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) along with other government funded institutions such as National Biotechnology Board (NBTB) and many other autonomous bodies representing the biotechnology sector, are working together in order to project India as a global hub for biotech research and business excellence

 

Employment generations in Biotechnology:-

Scope for biotechnology as a career option is immense as we live in exciting times where there are amazing discoveries, new applications and innovative products on the market every day. There are various organisations that serve as great resources for those who are just entering the field of biotechnology.

Biotechnologists are at the forefront of the continuous search to find new, sustainable food sources. They can work in various work environments like industrial sector, environmental sector, medical sector, food manufacturing, health-care and pharmaceuticals.

Professionals in this field can specialise in one or more subfields like genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics.

 

Biotechnology: Present and Future Roles in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Biotechnology is the integration of a number of scientific disciplines including microbiology, genetics, biochemistry and chemical engineering. It uses living organisms, or systems or products from these organisms to make or modify useful products. New biotechnology comprises genetic engineering, protoplast fusion and monoclonal antibody techniques, powerful new “tools” designed to generate efficient bioprocesses and products for the pharmaceutical industry. The following areas of biotechnology are highlighted: human insulin, interferons and other growth factors, neuroactive peptides, blood products, antibiotics, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and oncogenes.

Biotechnology regarding health improvement

BIOTECHNOLOGY is  applied to manufacture pharmaceuticals like enzymes, antibiotics and vaccines, and its use for molecular diagnostic.

1.INSULIN PRODUCTION:- Production of genetically engineered human insulin was one of the first breakthroughs of biotechnology in the pharmaceutical industry. Insulin was first produced in Escherichia coli through recombinant DNA technology in 1978.

2.HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE :-Production of human growth hormone was first done in 1979 using recombinant DNA technology. scientists produced human growth hormone by inserting DNA coding for human growth hormone into a plasmid that was implanted in Escherichia coli bacteria.

3.HUMAN BLOOD CLOTTING FACTOR :-Production of human clotting factors was enhanced through recombinant DNA technology. Human clotting factor ix was the first to be produced through recombinant DNA technology using transgenic Chinese hamster ovary cells in 1986.

4.GENE THERAPY :-Gene therapy is the use of DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease.  It derives its name from the idea that DNA can be used to supplement or alter genes within an individual’s cells as a therapy to treat disease.

5.STEM CELLS :- A stem cell is a cell that has the potential to become any cell type in the human body. Everyone has stem cells, but they are very hard to access. The easiest place to get stem cells is from an embryo. Stem cells are introduced into a damaged area of the body where, under the right conditions, will replace the damaged area.

6.TISSUE ENGINEERING :-A form of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering is the creation of human tissue outside the body for later replacement. Usually occurs on a tissue scaffold, but can be grown on/in other organisms.



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