UPPCS 2023 Mains Paper 1 Solution

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UPPCS 2023 Mains Paper 1 Solution

125 words

  1. Give an account of Vedic Literature.

Vedic Literature, foundational to Indian culture, comprises religious texts penned during ancient times. They primarily contain hymns, rituals, and philosophical discourses.The Vedic Age was between 1500 BC and 600 BC.

  • Rigveda: The oldest of the Vedas, it is a collection of hymns dedicated to deities like Agni, Indra, and Varuna.
  • Samaveda: Largely derived from the Rigveda, this Veda focuses on the musical aspect, offering chants to be sung during rituals.
  • Yajurveda: Divided into Black (Krishna) and White (Shukla) Yajurveda, it provides detailed descriptions of rituals and ceremonies.
  • Atharvaveda: Unlike the other three, it encompasses spells, charms, and incantations, reflecting a more secular nature.
  • Brahmanas: These are prose texts elaborating rituals and ceremonies of the Vedas, providing explanations for the hymns.
  • Aranyakas: Transitional texts between Brahmanas and Upanishads, they discuss meditation and rituals for hermits and forest dwellers.
  • Upanishads: Philosophical texts that delve deep into the nature of reality, exploring concepts like Brahman (universal soul) and Atman (individual soul).
  • Vedangas: These are auxiliary texts, facilitating understanding and interpretation of the Vedas.
  • Sutras: Brief aphoristic compositions, they deal with rites, ceremonies, and ethics.


  1. Write an account on the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in modern education.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, a visionary reformer of the 19th century, played a pivotal role in advancing modern education among the Indian Muslim community.

  • Scientific Outlook: Sir Syed was deeply influenced by modern science and believed in the compatibility of Islam with scientific inquiry. He started the Scientific Society of Aligarh in 1864, aiming to translate Western works into indigenous languages.
  • Aligarh Muslim University (AMU): His crowning achievement, the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh (1875), later became the renowned AMU. It introduced Western-style university education, blending it with Islamic studies, thereby creating a modern, progressive educational institution for Muslims.
  • Promotion of Urdu: He advocated for Urdu to be the medium of instruction for Muslims and supported the replacement of Persian with it in courts.
  • Journals and Publications: Sir Syed launched the journal Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq to promote modern ideas among Muslims, stressing the importance of rationalism and scientific thinking.
  • Against Traditionalism: He faced resistance from conservative sections but continued his endeavors, emphasizing that the Quran promoted rationalism, and there was no conflict between religion and modern science.


  1. Discuss the role of Sardar Patel in the unification of India after Independence.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, post-independence India’s first Deputy Prime Minister, was instrumental in the nation’s unification by integrating princely states into the Indian Union.

  • Instrument of Accession: After the British left India, there were 562 princely states given the option to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent. Patel, along with V.P. Menon, formulated the ‘Instrument of Accession’ to bring these states into the Indian fold.
  • Diplomacy and Persuasion: Through a combination of diplomatic negotiations and sometimes veiled threats, Patel managed to convince the majority of monarchs to join India.
  • Use of Force: In certain cases, like Junagadh and Hyderabad, where peaceful negotiations failed, Patel endorsed military intervention to ensure their accession to India.
  • Vision of Unity: Patel’s belief in a unified India was unwavering. He foresaw the strategic and administrative nightmare a Balkanized subcontinent would present.
  • Merger of Kashmir: The accession of Kashmir, although a complex issue, was handled with Patel playing a crucial role in the state’s initial accession through the Instrument of Accession.


  1. What kind of hinderances do regionalism create in the development of India?

Regionalism, often arising from distinct ethnic, linguistic, or cultural identities, has been a double-edged sword in India’s socio-political landscape.

  1. Economic Disparities: Regionalist demands can sometimes prioritize local development at the expense of national interests. For instance, demands for resource control can hinder national economic planning.
  2. Political Instability: Frequent demands for statehood based on regional identity can lead to administrative challenges and disrupt the smooth functioning of democracy. The prolonged unrest in areas demanding separate statehood can stall development projects.
  3. Hampers National Integration: Regionalism sometimes amplifies local identities, often at the cost of a unified national identity. This can foster feelings of alienation and separatism, as witnessed in parts of the Northeast and Kashmir.
  4. Policy Paralysis: Diverse regional interests can lead to policy paralysis. For example, inter-state river water disputes, like the Cauvery issue between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, have persisted for decades without resolution.
  5. Impedes Mobility: Strong regional identities might resist the influx of people from other regions, hampering the free movement of labor and skills essential for holistic national development.
  6. Dilution of National Policies: Regional pressures can dilute national policies. Local political parties might prioritize regional over national interests, affecting the uniform implementation of central schemes.


  1. ‘Unemployment is the only cause for the prevalent poverty in India’. Comment.

Unemployment undoubtedly exacerbates poverty in India, but attributing poverty solely to it is an oversimplification of the complex socio-economic dynamics at play.

  • Unemployment: Persistent joblessness certainly reduces income opportunities for families, leading to lower living standards and heightened economic insecurity. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic saw a spike in unemployment, pushing millions into poverty.
  • Structural Issues: Agrarian distress due to small landholdings, outdated farming practices, and indebtedness also contribute to rural poverty.
  • Illiteracy and Lack of Skills: A significant portion of the population lacks the necessary education or vocational skills to access better-paying jobs, keeping them in a cycle of low-wage employment.
  • Inadequate Infrastructure: Poor infrastructure in many areas hinders businesses, leading to reduced economic activity and job opportunities.
  • Social Inequalities: Discrimination based on caste, religion, or gender can marginalize certain groups, limiting their economic opportunities and perpetuating poverty.
  • Health Burdens: High out-of-pocket health expenses can push families into debt, leading to impoverishment.
  • Global Economic Factors: Fluctuations in global markets, especially in sectors like agriculture and textiles, can affect income for large sections of the population.


  1. Do you agree with the statement that crime against women in Indi ais increasing?

The assertion that crime against women in India is increasing has sparked concern and debate, especially with media highlighting numerous incidents in recent years.

  1. Statistics and Reports: National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data indicates a rise in crimes against women. From molestation to domestic violence, reported cases have shown an upward trend.
  2. Increasing Awareness and Reporting: An alternative viewpoint suggests that increased numbers might reflect a higher rate of reporting rather than an absolute increase in crimes. Women, backed by numerous campaigns, are now more empowered to report crimes.
  3. Regional Variations: Crime patterns are inconsistent across India. While some regions show increased incidents, others depict a decline, indicating that socio-cultural factors play a pivotal role.
  4. Role of Media: Increased media scrutiny and coverage of such crimes give an impression of increased frequency. However, media also plays a role in sensitizing society about the issue.
  5. Government Initiatives: To combat this, the government has enacted stringent laws, like the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013, post the Delhi gang-rape case. However, implementation remains a challenge.
  6. Socio-Cultural Dynamics: Deep-rooted patriarchal norms, gender inequality, and limited access to education and employment for women exacerbate vulnerability to crimes.


  1. ‘Oceans are the store house of resources.’ Write a short note.

Oceans, covering over 70% of Earth’s surface, are vital reservoirs of resources, playing a pivotal role in sustaining life and supporting economic activities.

  • Biodiversity: Oceans are teeming with diverse life forms, from microscopic plankton to mammoth blue whales, forming intricate ecosystems like coral reefs and deep-sea trenches.
  • Mineral Resources: The seabed contains vast reserves of minerals like polymetallic nodules, cobalt, and rare earth elements crucial for modern industries.
  • Energy Resources:
    • Fossil Fuels: The ocean floors and continental shelves have rich deposits of oil and natural gas.
    • Renewable Energy: Oceans offer potential for wind, wave, tidal, and thermal energy, fostering a transition towards sustainable energy.
  • Food: Fisheries are a primary source of protein for billions, and aquaculture is emerging as a sustainable means to meet rising global food demands.
  • Medicinal Potential: Marine organisms have unique biochemical compounds, which are being explored for therapeutic applications against ailments like cancer, Alzheimer’s, and infections.
  • Carbon Sequestration: Phytoplankton in oceans play a vital role in the carbon cycle, absorbing significant amounts of carbon dioxide, helping in climate regulation.
  1. Soil profile plays an important role in agriculture. Do you agree.

The soil profile, a vertical section of the soil from the ground surface to the parent rock, is crucial in determining agricultural productivity.

  • Layered Structure: A soil profile comprises different layers or horizons. Each layer has unique physical and chemical properties affecting plant growth.
    • O Horizon (Organic Layer): Comprised of decomposed organic materials. It improves soil fertility and supports microbial life essential for nutrient cycling.
    • A Horizon (Topsoil): Contains minerals and organic matter, vital for crop growth due to its richness in nutrients.
    • B Horizon (Subsoil): Accumulates minerals and nutrients leached from the above layers. It influences water retention and drainage.
    • C Horizon: Consists of weathered parent material. It’s a reservoir of minerals but less fertile.
  • Water Retention and Drainage: Soil profile determines the water-holding capacity. Proper drainage avoids root rot while adequate retention supports growth during dry periods.
  • Root Penetration: Deep and well-developed profiles allow roots to penetrate deeper, accessing water and nutrients during droughts.
  • Aeration: Soil layers impact aeration, influencing root health and microbial activity.
  • Disease and Pest Resistance: Healthy soils, signified by a balanced profile, can suppress or resist certain soil-borne diseases and pests.
  1. Throw light on Rohingya refugee in South Asia.

The Rohingya refugee crisis has emerged as one of South Asia’s most pressing humanitarian concerns, originating from systemic discrimination in Myanmar’s Rakhine State.

  • Origin: Rohingyas are predominantly Muslim minorities in Buddhist-majority Myanmar. Perceived as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh, they have faced persecution and discrimination in Myanmar.
  • Mass Exodus: In 2017, Myanmar’s military crackdown led to widespread allegations of human rights violations like arson, murder, and rape. This forced over 700,000 Rohingyas to flee, primarily to Bangladesh, creating the world’s largest refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar.
  • Regional Implication: Beyond Bangladesh, other South Asian countries, including India and Nepal, have also witnessed the influx of Rohingya refugees. Their presence has raised socio-economic, security, and political challenges in host nations.
  • Humanitarian Concerns: These refugees live in squalid conditions with limited access to basic amenities. There are concerns related to health crises, especially the spread of communicable diseases.
  • Internal Security concerns :  Security agencies have indicated that many Rohingyas may be radicalized and use terror activities in India.
  • International Response: While international agencies like the UNHCR have been actively involved in providing aid, the response from regional governments varies, with some stressing repatriation and others focusing on integration.


  1. Write a short note on Nine Number channel and its strategic importance.

The Nine Degree Channel is a narrow waterway that separates the Lakshadweep Islands from the Minicoy Island, which is the southernmost atoll of the Lakshadweep archipelago. Its strategic importance can be summarized as follows:


  1. Maritime Passage: It serves as a crucial maritime passage in the Indian Ocean, facilitating the movement of ships and vessels between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.


  1. Geopolitical Significance: Due to its location, the channel has geopolitical significance. It lies close to international sea lanes, making it strategically important for both commercial and military purposes.
  2. Security: The Nine Degree Channel is vital for India’s national security as it forms a natural barrier for the Lakshadweep Islands. It plays a role in protecting India’s western coast and its maritime interests.
  3. Economic Importance: The channel is important for the fishing industry, as it is rich in marine resources. It also supports trade and connectivity between India’s western and eastern coasts.
  4. Defensive Position: For the Indian Navy, the channel offers a defensive position to monitor and safeguard India’s maritime interests in the Indian Ocean region.

200 words

  1. Describe the architectural features of the temples of Nagar style.

The Nagar style, also known as Nagara style, represents the Northern Indian style of temple architecture. It is distinguished by its specific features and unique aesthetic appeal.

  1. Shikhara: The most prominent feature of Nagara temples is the Shikhara (or the main tower) which is pyramidal and rises in a curvilinear shape. It represents Mount Meru, the cosmic mountain in Hindu cosmology.
  2. Garbhagriha: Below the Shikhara is the sanctum sanctorum or the Garbhagriha, the womb chamber, where the deity of the temple resides. It’s the holiest and most private part of the temple.
  3. Mandapa: Leading to the Garbhagriha is the Mandapa, or the columned hall. Depending on the temple’s size, there might be multiple Mandapas – Ardha (half), Maha (great), or Nritta (dance).
  4. Jagati: Unlike the flat platform seen in Dravidian architecture, Nagara style often uses a raised platform known as Jagati. This not only gives height but also provides a walkway for devotees.
  5. Amalaka: Atop the Shikhara, there’s a ribbed circular stone called Amalaka, which is often crowned by the Kalasha, a pot-like finial.
  6. Panchayatana: Many Nagara style temples exhibit a Panchayatana layout – the main shrine in the center with four smaller shrines at the corners, representing the main deity and its various forms or associated deities.
  7. Decorative Facades: The external walls of Nagar style temples are usually adorned with intricate carvings and sculptures depicting various deities, dancers, musicians, and sometimes scenes from Hindu epics.
  8. Toranas: These are ornamental gateways, seen in some temples, which lead to the main temple complex.
  9. Sikharas: In addition to the main Shikhara, there are smaller subsidiary towers or Sikharas that blend with the main one, giving a multi-towered appearance.


  1. Underline ideological dimensions of the uprising of 1857.

The uprising of 1857, often termed India’s First War of Independence, was fueled by multifaceted grievances. Ideological dimensions played a significant role in shaping this revolt.

  • Religious Ideology: The uprising was deeply rooted in religious sentiments. The introduction of the new Enfield rifle, rumored to have cartridges greased with cow and pig fat, offended both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. The cow is sacred in Hinduism, and the consumption of pork is prohibited in Islam.
  • Political Ideology: Many local leaders and rulers were disgruntled with the British policy of Doctrine of Lapse, which allowed the annexation of princely states if they did not have a male heir. This was seen as a blatant disregard for traditional rights and practices.
  • Cultural and Social Ideologies: The rapid spread of Western education, legal systems, and missionary activities were perceived as an attempt to undermine and replace Indian culture and religion. The British policy of “civilizing” was seen as a direct assault on Indian ways of life.
  • Economic Ideology: The exploitative land revenue systems, particularly the ‘Mahalwari’ and ‘Ryotwari’ systems, burdened the peasantry. These systems were seen as tools to impoverish the Indian populace for the benefit of British industrial growth.
  • Nationalist Ideology: Though nascent, a sense of collective identity and nationhood was emerging, particularly among the Indian elite. The oppressive policies and blatant racial superiority projected by the British united diverse groups under the banner of nationalism.


  1. Evaluate the role of Bismarck in the unification of Germany.

Otto von Bismarck, as the Prime Minister of Prussia, played a pivotal role in the 19th-century unification of German states under Prussian leadership.

  1. Diplomatic Maneuvering:
    • Bismarck believed in the principle of Realpolitik, or “real politics”, emphasizing practical considerations over moral or ideological ones.
    • He maintained a careful balance between diplomacy and military intervention, knowing when to forge alliances and when to wage war.
  2. Wars of Unification:
    • Danish War (1864): In alliance with Austria, Prussia defeated Denmark, leading to the acquisition of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. This was the first step in his grand design.
    • Austro-Prussian War (1866): Bismarck skillfully provoked Austria and defeated it within seven weeks, leading to the formation of the North German Confederation. This effectively excluded Austria from German affairs.
    • Franco-Prussian War (1870-71): Orchestrating tensions over the Spanish succession issue, Bismarck led the German states into a unified war against France. The victory not only allowed the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany but also paved the way for the proclamation of the German Empire in 1871 at Versailles.
  3. Creation of the German Empire:
    • With the proclamation of King Wilhelm I of Prussia as the German Emperor (“Kaiser”) in 1871, the German Empire was established, marking the culmination of Bismarck’s efforts.
  4. Balance of Power:
    • Post-unification, Bismarck established a complex system of alliances with other major European powers, ensuring Germany’s security and maintaining peace in Europe. His diplomatic efforts aimed to isolate France and prevent a two-front war.



  1. How did Indian culture affect the world during Corona pandemic period?

The COVID-19 pandemic magnified the influence of Indian culture on global perspectives, especially with its holistic wellness, community spirit, and philosophical roots.

  1. Use of Namaste : Namaste was the most visible sign and became a widely accepted mode of greeting in place of shaking hands.
  2. Yoga and Meditation:
    • Global Adoption: Many turned to yoga and meditation for mental and physical well-being during lockdowns, practices rooted in ancient Indian traditions.
  3. Ayurveda and Natural Immunity Boosters:
    • Turmeric Latte: Known traditionally as ‘Haldi Doodh’ in India, it gained popularity as ‘Golden Milk’ in western countries for its immune-boosting properties.
    • Ayurvedic Adaptogens: Herbs like Ashwagandha and Giloy, integral to Ayurveda, were globally recognized for their potential health benefits.
  4. Digital Art and Entertainment:
    • OTT Platforms: Indian movies and series on platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime, showcased the rich tapestry of Indian culture and life during the pandemic, receiving global accolades.
    • Virtual Tourism: Many global tourists experienced Indian festivals, rituals, and historical places virtually, providing a cultural escape during travel restrictions.
  5. Philosophy and Spirituality:
    • Resilience and Acceptance: The world witnessed India’s collective resilience, drawing from its philosophical teachings that emphasize endurance and acceptance during challenging times.
    • Community Support: Concepts like ‘VasudhaivaKutumbakam’ (the world is one family) found resonance as Indians worldwide rallied to support their homeland during the severe COVID-19 wave, setting an example of global camaraderie.
  6. Soft Diplomacy:
    • Vaccine Maitri: India’s initiative to supply COVID-19 vaccines to various countries fortified its image as the ‘pharmacy of the world’, reflecting its cultural eths of global well-being.


  1. Evaluate the role of woman organisations in woman empowerment.

Women’s organizations have been pivotal in driving the agenda of women’s empowerment, shaping narratives, and implementing transformative actions on the ground.

  1. Awareness and Education:
    • Women’s organizations, such as the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) in India, have been vital in spreading awareness about women’s rights, education, and health.
    • They conduct workshops, seminars, and campaigns to educate women about their legal rights and the importance of education.
  2. Economic Empowerment:
    • Organizations like Women’s World Banking provide financial solutions, training, and support, enabling women to participate actively in economic activities.
    • They promote entrepreneurship, facilitating access to micro-loans, and offer skill development programs.
  3. Policy Influence and Advocacy:
    • Women’s organizations often lobby for policy changes that support women’s rights. For instance, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) pushes for better labor rights for informal women workers.
    • They also advocate against discriminatory practices and laws.
  4. Health and Safety Initiatives:
    • Groups like the White Ribbon Alliance work to ensure that childbirth is safe for all women, advocating for maternal health reforms.
    • Organizations also establish helplines and shelters for victims of domestic violence or trafficking.
  5. Community Building:
    • Women’s organizations create platforms for women to connect, share experiences, and provide mutual support. These networks become powerful tools for collective action and voice-raising.


  1. The process of urbanization leads to development or devastation in the society. Write your views.

Urbanization is a double-edged sword; it can propel development but also potentially lead to societal devastation, depending on various factors governing its execution and management.

Development through Urbanization:

  • Economic Growth: Cities serve as hubs for industries, services, and innovation. This leads to job creation and boosts the nation’s GDP. For instance, cities like Bangalore in India have transformed into global IT hubs.
  • Cultural Exchange: Urban centers attract diverse populations, leading to a melange of cultures, fostering tolerance, and understanding among communities.
  • Infrastructure: With urbanization, there’s an emphasis on developing public infrastructure like roads, airports, and public transport, which can boost trade and connectivity.
  • Educational and Health Facilities: Cities often host reputed educational institutions and specialized healthcare centers, providing enhanced opportunities and services to residents.

Devastation due to Urbanization:

  • Environmental Degradation: Rapid and unplanned urban growth often leads to deforestation, increased pollution, and loss of biodiversity.
  • Overpopulation: Cities like Mumbai and Dhaka face challenges due to overpopulation, resulting in slums with poor living conditions.
  • Strain on Resources: Overpopulation puts a strain on resources like water, leading to potential crises if not managed.
  • Cultural Erosion: Traditional practices might fade away in the urban hustle, leading to a loss of cultural identity for some.
  • Mental Health Issues: The fast-paced life in cities, coupled with a lack of social cohesion, can result in increased stress and mental health issues.
  1. Discuss the causes and consequences of internal human migration in India.

Internal human migration in India has been a defining feature of its socio-economic fabric. Various causes propel this movement, leading to multifaceted consequences.

Causes of Internal Human Migration:

  1. Economic Reasons: The primary driver is the search for better employment opportunities. Urban centers and economically prosperous states attract migrants seeking improved livelihoods.
  2. Education: Cities like Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune attract thousands of students annually due to their reputed educational institutions.
  3. Natural Disasters: Events like floods, droughts, or cyclones can displace large populations, forcing them to migrate to safer regions.
  4. Social Factors: Family movements, marriage, especially in the context of India where women move post-marriage, contribute to migration.
  5. Infrastructure Development: Major projects like dam construction displace local communities, pushing them to new areas.
  6. Conflict and Violence: Communal tensions or localized conflicts can lead to migrations, as seen in the past during riots or disturbances.
  7. Land Acquisition and Farming: Land fragmentation and lack of profitability in agriculture push farmers to seek alternate employment in urban areas.

Consequences of Internal Human Migration:

  1. Urbanization: Cities like Mumbai and Delhi have burgeoned due to migration, leading to the growth of slums and pressure on urban infrastructure.
  2. Cultural Exchange: Migration leads to a melting pot of cultures, cuisines, languages, and traditions in urban centers.
  3. Economic Imbalance: While cities prosper, rural areas, especially those with heavy out-migration, can face labor shortages and stagnation.
  4. Strain on Resources: Rapid and unplanned urban growth exerts pressure on resources like water, housing, and sanitation facilities.
  5. Social Challenges: New migrants often face discrimination, and are sometimes blamed for crime or taking away jobs, leading to social tensions.
  6. Remittances: Migrants send money back to their home regions, boosting the rural economy.
  7. Skill Drain: Rural areas can face a drain of younger, more educated, or skilled individuals, impacting local development.
  1. Discuss the relationship between El Nino and south-east monsoon in India and its impact on agriculture

El Niño, a climate phenomenon, has significant ramifications on the south-east monsoon in India, profoundly influencing the country’s agriculture.

  • El Niño and South-East Monsoon
    • El Niño Phenomenon: Characterized by a prolonged warming of sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, El Niño events occur at irregular intervals, typically ranging from two to seven years.
    • South-East Monsoon Impact: El Niño can lead to the weakening of the south-east monsoon winds, resulting in reduced rainfall in India. This is because El Niño causes the shifting of convection currents, pushing rain-bearing clouds away from the Indian subcontinent.
  • Agricultural Impact
    • Rainfall Shortage: Diminished monsoon rains during El Niño years can lead to drought conditions in many parts of India. This, in turn, can cause water scarcity for irrigation, affecting crop yields.
    • Crop Production: Major crops like rice, pulses, and oilseeds, which are predominantly rain-fed, see decreased production during El Niño years. This can lead to increased food prices and inflation.
    • Economic Consequences: Agriculture is a significant sector in India’s economy. Insufficient rains can depress agricultural outputs leading to economic slowdowns, especially in rural areas.
    • Groundwater Depletion: To compensate for the reduced rainfall, there’s an increased dependence on groundwater, leading to its rapid depletion, affecting long-term sustainability of agriculture.


  1. Write a short note on temperate cyclones. How it impacts India?

Temperate cyclones, also known as extratropical or frontal cyclones, originate in mid-latitudinal zones and are driven by temperature differences between polar and tropical air masses.

  • Formation and Characteristics
    • Origin: Temperate cyclones form between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres.
    • Fronts: They involve the interaction of two contrasting air masses – cold polar air and warm tropical air. The boundary separating them is called a ‘front’.
    • Structure: Unlike tropical cyclones which have a well-defined eye, temperate cyclones are larger, spanning 1000-1500 km in diameter, and have a cold and warm front.
    • Weather Patterns: As the warm front approaches, there’s a gradual increase in temperature, cloud cover, and continuous rain. The cold front brings a rapid drop in temperature and heavy, short-lived rainfall.
  • Impact on India
    • Western Disturbances: A significant phenomenon associated with temperate cyclones in India is the ‘Western Disturbance’. Originating over the Mediterranean Sea, these cyclones enter India from the northwest during winters, impacting the weather patterns over the northern and northwestern parts.
    • Rainfall: They are crucial for the rabi crops, providing much-needed winter rain to the plains of North India and snow to the mountains.
    • Temperature: The passage of these disturbances raises temperatures, making winters milder for a short duration.
    • Agricultural Impact: The moisture provided by these systems is vital for wheat and other rabi crops.
    • Hazards: At times, heavy rainfall/snowfall associated with these disturbances may lead to floods or avalanches in mountainous regions.
  1. Discuss India’s mineral development policy.

The National Mineral Policy 2019 aims to ensure sustainable mining sector development while addressing issues related to project-affected persons, especially those residing in tribal areas. It seeks to bring in further transparency, better regulation, and enforcement, as well as balanced social and economic growth and sustainable mining practices:


  • Introduction of Right of First Refusal for firms who found the presence of mineral in the area.
  • Auctioning in virgin areas for composite exploration cum mining on a revenue share basis.
  • Transfer of mining leases and creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas and improve transportation.
  • Granting the status of industry to mining activity for private sector financing and acquisitions of mineral assets abroad.
  • Rationalization of reserved areas for PSUs, making them available for auction and private sector participation.
  • Efforts to harmonize taxes, levies, and royalties with world benchmarks to support the private sector.
  • Use of coastal waterways and inland shipping for mineral evacuation and transportation.
  • Introduction of the concept of Inter-Generational Equity to ensure the well-being of future generations and sustainable mining.
  • Proposal for a long-term export-import policy for the mineral sector to provide stability and incentives for large-scale commercial mining activity.



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