UKPCS Science Chemistry: Glucose #27

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6)

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen.

Source of energy: Glucose is a ubiquitous fuel in biology. It is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans, through aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. Glucose is the human body’s key source of energy, through aerobic respiration.

Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g. starch) yields mono- and disaccharides, most of which is glucose. Through glycolysis (Use of glucose as an energy source in cells is by either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation) glucose is oxidized to eventually form CO2 and water, yielding energy mostly in the form of ATP. The insulin reaction, and other mechanisms, regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood. As a result of its importance in human health, glucose is an analyte in common medical blood tests.[17] Eating or fasting prior to taking a blood sample has an effect on analyses for glucose in the blood; a high fasting glucose blood sugar level may be a sign of prediabetes or diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where the body is unable to regulate levels of glucose in the blood either because of a lack of insulin in the body or the failure, by cells in the body, to respond properly to insulin. Both of these situations can be caused by persistently high elevations of blood glucose levels, through pancreatic burnout and insulin resistance. The pancreas is the organ responsible for the secretion of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose levels, allowing the body’s cells to absorb and use glucose. Without it, glucose cannot enter the cell and therefore cannot be used as fuel for the body’s functions.

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