UKPCS Science Chemistry: STEEL # 20

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

STEEL

Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost. Steel’s base metal is iron. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.1% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, carbon and so on. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: STEEL # 20”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Aluminium #19

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

ALMUNIUM 

Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below.

Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and its ability to resist corrosion. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades and window frames.

PRODUCTION: Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Aluminium #19”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: GLASS #18

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

GLASS

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: GLASS #18”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: CEMENT#17

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete.

Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, and can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster). Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: CEMENT#17”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Lime #15

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

LIME

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic material in which carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides predominate. In the strict sense of the term, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Lime #15”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Plaster of Paris #14

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

PLASTER OF PARIS

Gypsum plaster, or plaster of Paris, is produced by heating gypsum to about 300 °F (150 °C)

CaSO4·2H2O + heat → CaSO4·0.5H2O + 1.5H2O (released as steam). Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Plaster of Paris #14”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Bleaching Powder #13

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Bleaching Powder

Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. As a mixture with lime and calcium chloride, it is marketed as chlorine powder or bleach powder for water treatment and as a bleaching agent. It strongly smells of chlorine, owing to its slow decomposition in moist air. It is not highly soluble in water and is more preferably used in soft to medium-hard water. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Bleaching Powder #13”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Baking soda #12

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Baking soda #12”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: pH,neutral solution,carbonates #7

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

  • pH
    • pH (potential of hydrogen) is a scale of acidity from 0 to 14. It tells how acidic or alkaline a substance is.
    • More acidic solutions, have lower pH. More alkaline solutions, have higher pH. Substances that aren’t acidic or alkaline (that is, neutral solutions) usually have a pH of 7.
    • Acids have a pH that is less than 7. Alkalis have a pH that is greater than 7.pH is a measure of the concentration of protons (H+) in a solution.
    • Typical indicators are phenolphthalein, methyl orange, methyl red, bromothymol blue, and thymol blue. They each change colour at different points on the pH scale, and can be used together as a universal indicator.
    • Another way is to use litmus paper, which is based on a natural pH indicators.

Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: pH,neutral solution,carbonates #7”

UKPCS Science Chemistry: Atomic structure #1

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6). 

Atomic structure

All material things are made from atoms. There are just over one hundred different types of atom, called elements. Atoms can join together in millions of different combinations to make all the substances on Earth and beyond.

Continue reading “UKPCS Science Chemistry: Atomic structure #1”