UKPCS-UKPSC Science: Microscope #32

Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science (paper #6).

A microscope is a scientific instrument. It makes things normally too small to be seen look larger. This way they can be seen better and examined correctly. People who use microscopes commonly in their jobs include doctors and scientists. Microscopes are commonly used in schools to help students in science classes such as biology or chemistry.


The earliest microscopes had only one lens and are called simple microscopes. Compound microscopes have at least two lenses. In a compound microscope, the lens closer to the eye is called the eyepiece. The lens at the other end is called the objective. The lenses multiply up, so a 20x eyepiece and a 60x objective together give 1200x magnification.

Types of microscopes

There are many different types of microscopes. The most common are compound light microscopes and electron microscopes. In a compound light microscope, the object is illuminated: light is thrown on it. The image formed by the object is looked at. Light passes through two lenses and makes the image bigger.


Electron microscopes come in different types. Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) fire electrons into the object being looked at. This carries information about how the object looks into a magnetic “lens”. The image is then magnified onto a television screen. Scanning electron microscopes also fire electrons at the object, but in a single beam. These lose their power when they strike the object, and the loss of power results in something else being generated—usually an X-ray. This is sensed and magnified onto a screen.

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Hemant Bhatt

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