Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science (paper #6).
Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Isaac Newton called inductive reasoning. It is a part of classical mechanics.
Newton’s law has since been superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity in most applications. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision, or when dealing with very strong gravitational fields, such as those found near extremely massive and dense objects, or at very close distances
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including planets, stars and galaxies. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the ocean tides. Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects.
Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental interactions of nature (fundamental force) gravity has a negligible influence on the behavior of subatomic particles.
The acceleration gained by an object because of gravitational force is called its acceleration due to gravity. Its SI unit is m/s2. Acceleration due to gravity is a vector, which means it has both a magnitude and a direction. The acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earth is represented as g. It has a standard value defined as 9.80665 m/s2.
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