Oracle IAS, the best coaching institute for UPSC/IAS/PCS preparation in Dehradun brings to you UKPCS Science Chemistry (paper 6)- Ethanol.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. Its chemical formula is C2H5-OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH.
Ethanol is mostly produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, or by petrochemical processes. It is an addictive psychoactive drug (indeed one of the oldest and most common recreational drugs), causing a characteristic intoxication (“drunkenness”) and neurotoxicity when consumed in sufficient quantities. It is widely used as a solvent, as fuel, and as a feedstock for synthesis of other chemicals; as well as in many other minor uses.
Ethanol for use as an industrial feedstock or solvent (sometimes referred to as synthetic ethanol) is made from petrochemical feed stocks, primarily by the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene:
C2H4 + H2O → CH3CH2OH
The catalyst is most commonly phosphoric acid
Ethanol in alcoholic beverages and fuel is produced by fermentation. Certain species of yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae) metabolize sugar, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The chemical equations below summarize the conversion:
C6H12O6 → 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2
C12H22O11 + H2O → 4 CH3CH2OH + 4 CO2
To produce it from starchy materials such as cereal grains, the starch must first be converted into sugars.
UKPCS Mains Study Material subject wise
The notes are strictly as per UKPCS syllabus (topic wise):
Individual Polity Cost: Rs. 1500/- (including shipping)
Individual S&T Cost: Rs. 1500/- (including shipping)
Individual Geography Cost: Rs. 1500/- (including shipping)
Individual Economics Cost: Rs. 1000/- (including shipping)
Individual Ethics Cost: Rs. 1000/- (including shipping)
Individual History Cost: Rs. 1500/- (including shipping)
- Uttarakhand PCS 2023 Mains : History Paper Analysis by Oracle IAS - March 21, 2023
- Uttarakhand PCS Prelims Crash Course 2023 - January 21, 2023
- UKPCS Upper Prelims 2023 Test series || Oracle IAS - January 21, 2023