UKPCS Science Life Sciences-Biotechnology – Introduction to biotechnology: #114

Introduction to biotechnology:


Biotechnology is any technological application that uses biological system or living organisms to make or modify the process or products for specific use.

Effusing life to life, through life, is what biotechnology is about. The idea of modifying products to suit specific applications and engineer them to make more viable, inspired man to reach the pinnacle where Biotechnology stands today.

Biotechnology has touched almost every aspect of human life and has carved its niche too. Biotechnology dealing with medical and health care is termed as Red biotechnology. It is Green biotechnology, when it concerns about agricultural processes and White biotechnology when comes to industrial processes.

It made its industrial and agricultural presence at the beginning of twentieth century. Production and use of Bio fuel was encouraged during World Wars. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin. In 1953, structure of DNA was proposed, that stirred the research in molecular biology and genetics. With the discovery of restricted enzyme, it became possible to insert foreign genes to bacteria in 1973. This paved way for the revolutionary technique ‘Recombinant DNA’. This technique enabled production of human insulin from bacteria and is also considered as the birth of modern biotechnology.


Biotechnology improved human life:-

  • Brewing and Fermentation

The craft brew craze has taken over the United States as enthusiasts crowd new local breweries and several adventurous folks even attempt their own brewing methods at home. Fermentation, one of the oldest uses of biotechnology, by using cultures to change the state of microorganisms for other uses. This includes the production of beer and consumable alcohols, ethanol that fuels our cars, vitamins, acids, energy that powers our homes, and is a process used when baking foods with yeast.

  • Antibiotics, Hormones, Vaccines

Whether it be inhibiting bacterial growth, correcting an imbalance in natural production, or aiding the production of antibodies to protect against disease, biotechnology enables doctors to keep us healthy and live longer with the use of antibiotics, hormones, and vaccines

  • Detergents

The use of enzymes in household detergents has long been used and is ever more prevalent as the push for environmentally friendly detergents continues to grow. Through the process of fermentation, enzymes are cultured that target several different stains, breakdown different substances, or digest certain materials and cellular structures.

  • Cheese, Yogurt and Lactose Intolerance

The process of fermentation and starter cultures and the important enzyme, rennet, which has been used for thousands of years. Cheese enthusiasts like Dairy Carrie can be very thankful for this old use of biotechnology. Folks who are lactose intolerant are also able to enjoy several dairy products thanks to the discovery and use of the enzyme lactase.

  • Animal Breeding and Genetic Improvement

Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer are just two of the many ways cattle farmers and ranchers utilize biotechnology to improve our use of advancements in genetic selection

  • Human Fertility

The same techniques and uses of biotechnology we utilize in livestock are utilized in human fertility clinics to help people carry out successful pregnancies when they have difficulty doing so in the bedroom.

  • Diagnostics and prognostics

Identification of better targets and combined use of nanotechnology and information technology are making it possible to develop rapid, accurate, personalized and inexpensive diagnostics and prognostics systems.

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Hemant Bhatt

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